Eligible forestry project typess
Articles 3(3) and 3(4) of the Kyoto Protocol establish the eligibility of different activities relating to the land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector under the Kyoto Protocol.
However, 16/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 13 limits the eligibility of LULUCF projects under the CDM to afforestation and reforestation:
The eligibility of land-use, land-use change and forestry project activities under Article 12 is limited to afforestation and reforestation (16/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 13).
These activities are defined in 16/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 1 as follows:
- "Afforestation" is the direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources
- "Reforestation" is the direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. For the first commitment period, reforestation activities will be limited to reforestation occurring on those lands that did not contain forest on 31 December 1989 (16/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 1).
Therefore, afforestation is the conversion of land that has not contained a forest for at least 50 years to forested land. Reforestation, on the other hand, is the conversion of land that was not forested on 31 December 1989 to forested land.
Project participants in forestry projects must demonstrate that the land that is the project site meets the eligibility criteria in either the afforestation or reforestation definition above. This process is known as 'demonstrating the eligibility of lands'.
Afforestation and reforestation activities involve the conversion of land that is not forested to land that is forested. For this purpose, forest is defined in 16/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 1(a) as follows:
"Forest" is a minimum area of land of 0.05-1.0 hectare with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10-30 per cent with trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2-5 metres at maturity in situ. A forest may consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground or open forest. Young natural stands and all plantations which have yet to reach a crown density of 10-30 per cent or tree height of 2-5 metres are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention such as harvesting or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest (16/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 1(a)).