Modalities of communication

The definition of modalities of communication is set out in the CDM Glossary of Terms:

The modalities of communication between project participants and the Executive Board are indicated at the time of registration by submitting a statement signed by all project participants. All official communication from and to project participants, after a request for registration is submitted by a DOE, shall be handled in accordance with these modalities of communication (CDM Glossary of Terms Version 03).

Therefore, the statement of modalities of communication, which must be signed by all project participants, sets out the way in which communication should be carried out between project participants and the Executive Board.

1. Content of the modalities of communication

The modalities of communication must nominate a focal point for communications, including with respect to the request for distribution. This responsibility may be granted exclusively to a sole focal point or shared jointly. If the focal point is shared between two or more entities, the parties may choose to effect communications with the secretariat using the signatures of any the focal parties, called a shared focal point, or with the signatures of all nominated parties, called a joint focal point.


The modalities of communication must clearly state how the communications are authorised and which project participant has responsibility for each type of communication. For example, the modalities of communication could state that one project participant has responsibility for communications relating to one issue (such as distribution of CERs), while the other has responsibility for all other communications. The different types of communications are listed below:

Scope of focal point authority: A focal point entity can be conferred the authority to:

(a) Communicate in relation to requests for forwarding of CERs to individual accounts of project participants; and/or,
(b) Communicate in relation to requests for addition and/or voluntary withdrawal of project participants; and/or,
(c) Communicate on any other matters related to registration and issuance not covered by (a) or (b) above.

Separate entities can be nominated for each scope of authority either in a sole, shared or joint focal point role. One or more entities can be nominated as focal point for each scope of authority in a shared or joint focal point role (as defined in 7. and 8. below) (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 3).

If a project participant or focal point wishes to authorise another entity to represent them in any dealings relating to the modalities of communication, the authorised signatory's name, contact details and specimen signature must be registered in the modalities of communication statement. Two signatory's may be authorised the signature of either of them will suffice to act upon.

Authorised signatory (of a project participant) is the person who represents a project participant entity in a CDM project activity (which may include a person who is authorised by way of a power of attorney) and whose name, contact details and specimen signature are to be registered in the MoC statement. Project participants may nominate one primary authorised signatory and one alternate authorised signatory in the MoC statement. The signature of either of them will suffice to act upon (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 4).

Authorised signatory (of a focal point) is the person who represents the focal point entity (which may include a person who is authorised by way of a power of attorney) and whose name, contact details and specimen signature are to be registered in the MoC statement. Focal point entities may nominate one primary authorised signatory and one alternate authorised signatory in the MoC statement. The signature of either of them will suffice to act upon (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 5).

A signature may be in the form of a handwritten signature accompanied with a company seal or stamp if appropriate, or a cryptographic electronic signature enrolled in the CDM Information System.

Signature is defined as an agreed means of authentication of an MoC statement by a project participant, or a given communication from a focal point entity, as the context requires. It may be either an authenticated handwritten signature, accompanied with a company seal or stamp if appropriate, or a cryptographic electronic signature enrolled in the CDM Information System (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 9).

Sensitive information provided in MoC statements such as personal information, specimen signatures and contact details will not be made available to the public to avoid exposure to the risk of external fraud and misuse of the information.

The Executive Board, the UNFCCC Secretariat and other relevant bodies will carry out instructions in the modalities of communication faithfully. For example, if the modalities of communication gives the focal point unilateral power to add and remove project participants, the Executive Board will honour this.

However, a statement in the modalities as to the number of CERs that should be distributed to each project participant will not be observed, because the project has yet to actually generate the CERs at the time the modalities is submitted. This information should be dealt with in the request for distribution.

Similarly, if the MoC specifies that the focal point may submit a request for distribution, all project participants must sign the request otherwise it will not be actioned.

The Executive Board will not enforce private contractual obligations arising from CER production. These instructions should not be included in an MoC statement.

The Board considers that neither itself nor the secretariat has the authority or responsibility to enforce private contractual obligations arising from the sale and buying of CERs and thus, such instructions shall not be included in an MoC statement. Honouring such contractual obligations is the sole responsibility of the registered project participants and nominated focal points (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 13).

2. Amending the modalities of communication

The modalities of communication can be changed with the consent of all project participants, as set out in the CDM Glossary of Terms:

If these modalities have to be modified, the new statement must be signed by all project participants and submitted in accordance with the modalities that are to be replaced (CDM Glossary of Terms Version 03).

Changes to the MoC: Modifications to the nomination of focal point in any or all of the scopes of authority are considered to be reasons for changing the MoC. In cases where such modifications are needed, project participants should express their agreement by submitting a new F-CDM-MOC form duly signed by their authorised signatories through the focal point for scope of authority described in 3 (c) (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 15).

If an authorised signatory of a project participant or focal point is changed, the focal point with responsibility for such communications, must submit an updated version of Annex 2 of the F-CDM-MOC, available here.

Similarly, in cases where a project participant is added or withdrawn, the responsible focal point must submit Annex 2 of the F-CDM-MOC form, which will be attached to the existing MoC. If this results in changes to the scope of authority of the focal point, a new F-CDM-MOC form duly signed by the authorised signatories for each project participant must be submitted.

Change of name of a project participant: In cases where the name of one or more project participants are to be changed, the focal point for scope of authority 3 (b) above shall submit an updated version of Annex 2 of the F-CDM-MOC form duly signed and completed. In cases where a change of name or legal status in one or more of the focal point entities is required, 15. above shall apply. (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 17).

Addition or withdrawal of project participants: In cases where the addition or withdrawal is not associated with changes in the nomination of focal points as described in 15. above, the focal point for scope of authority 3 (b) shall submit Annex 2 of the F-CDM-MOC form only, "Addition/Withdrawal of project participants", duly signed by the authorised signatory of the project participants concerned, which shall be attached to the existing MoC . If the addition or withdrawal of project participants does encompass changes to the nomination of focal point for any of the scopes of authority, a new F-CDM-MOC form duly signed by the authorised signatories for each project participant shall be submitted by the focal point for scope of authority 3 described in (c) (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 18).

3. Format of the modalities of communication

A standardised format of the modalities of communication is contained in EB 45 Annex 60, available here. Guidance on the procedures for modalities of communication between project participants and the executive board is available here and is intended to provide further clarification in relation to operational issues and to set out a standard format for the presentation and management of changes to the MOC document for CDM project activities

In the MoC, project participants must include the title of the CDM project, appropriate dates, project participant details, focal point designation and signatures.

A statement of modalities of communication shall incorporate the following provisions:

(a) Title of the CDM project activity (and UNFCCC reference number if available);
(b) Date of submission;
(c) List of all project participants;
(d) Clear designation of focal point for each scope of authority as described in section A above;
(e) Contact details and specimen signature of each focal point and signing authority (to be entered separately in cases where the focal point is also a project participant);
(f) Signatures (physical or electronic, when the latter is available) of all project participants confirming their agreement to the terms of the statement of modalities of communication (EB 45, Annex 59, paragraph 12).

The concepts, procedures and form of the modalities of communication will be revised by the CDM Executive Board from time to time in order to reflect the evolution of systems, risk management processes and best practices that arise.

4. Grace Period

In cases where the project is not yet registered but an MoC statement has already been signed by all project participants, the designated focal point may submit the signed statement in its original format but must provide evidence that it was signed prior to the availability of the form on 13 February 2009.

If the project has already been registered and all project participants have signed an MoC statement but not submitted it to the secretariat, similarly the designated focal point may submit the signed statement in its original format providing evidence that it was signed prior to the availability of the F-CDM-MOC form.

A grace period of eight months will be granted for projects not yet registered that have a signed MoC statement, while projects which have been registered but not yet submitted the signed MoC statement to the secretariat will be granted a grace period of one month. After these dates, project participants must use the F-CDM-MOC form.

Related Topics

Executive Board

Project participants

Focal point

CDM Registry

UNFCCC Secretariat